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    威斯巴登,千年古城因郎朗成“網紅”

    2019-07-04 06:17:53 環球時報

    本報駐德國特約記者 青木

    位于法蘭克福西約30公里處的威斯巴登是德國黑森州的首府。威斯巴登在德語中的意思是“草地上的浴場”。它不僅是著名的溫泉療養勝地,還擁有歐洲最奢華的賭場和歷史悠久的地下酒窖。如今,這一千年古城因為是鋼琴家郎朗新婚妻子的故鄉,而成為“網紅城市”。

    “威斯巴登擁有兩千多年的悠久歷史,可以追溯到古羅馬時期。”黑森州文化學者魯迪格對《環球時報》記者表示,當時,羅馬人發現了這里的溫泉,并為他們的士兵在草地上建了一座浴場,這就是城市名字的來由。

    因為溫泉的名聲,拿騷侯爵于8世紀將其官邸遷至威斯巴登。不過中世紀時,能享受溫泉的多為達官貴人。直到19世紀初,小城才兩三千居民。1816年威斯巴登成為拿騷公國的首都,這里才逐漸熱鬧起來。尤其是19世紀后半葉威斯巴登并入普魯士。城市開始大興土木,修建了不少溫泉療養設施,一時成為歐洲各界趨之若鶩的療養勝地。

    二戰中,艾森豪威爾將軍也看中此地,打算用它作為大本營。所以直到1945年初,盡管盟軍轟炸機不斷掠過小城天空,但卻從未丟過炸彈。戰后,威斯巴登被定為州府。

    如今,威斯巴登成了名副其實的溫泉之鄉,市內共有26個溫泉。這些溫泉不少是按照溫度高低來命名的,比如溫度最高的被稱作“沸騰泉”;“懶惰泉”的水溫則只有14到17攝氏度。要說最著名的溫泉,當屬弗里德里希皇帝溫泉浴場(如圖)。這里為客人提供古羅馬式溫泉享受,讓人仿佛又回到幾千年前體驗羅馬人的奢侈和舒適。泡溫泉已然成為當地人健康的生活方式之一。

    除了溫泉,雷司令葡萄酒也是威斯巴登的特產。威斯巴登周邊是森林茂密、丘陵起伏的萊茵高地區。早在羅馬時期,這里就開始種植葡萄,今天萊茵高是舉世聞名的雷司令葡萄酒產區。這里也屬于全長85公里的德國“葡萄酒之路”覆蓋區。當地許多人家也擁有自己酒莊。

    要深入了解雷司令葡萄酒,不妨走進具有900年歷史的約翰尼斯貝格宮地下酒窖。該酒窖屬于曾為奧地利帝國外交大臣的梅特涅家族。地下酒窖長250米、寬10米,可存放多達75萬升的葡萄酒。自1786年起,地下酒窖的一部分被開辟為葡萄酒收藏室,并取了一個書香味濃郁的名字——“地下圖書館”。如今這里存放著1萬多瓶自1748年以來產自當地的珍稀葡萄酒品種。

    “威斯巴登周邊出產的雷司令葡萄酒之所以出類拔萃,一是因為這里獨特的地勢和氣候,北面是陶努斯山脈,形成一道天然屏障,萊茵河也可調節氣候。二是這里優良的石灰性土壤特別適于種植葡萄。”當地釀酒師克里斯蒂安對記者表示。也難怪,德意志帝國宰相俾斯麥和美國總統杰弗遜也為其傾倒。而歌德、海涅還為其留下了動人的詩篇。

    威斯巴登人平時喜愛參加各類文化活動。威斯巴登每年舉辦種類繁多的戲劇、文學和音樂活動,比如五月國際藝術節、萊茵高音樂節等。威斯巴登國際鋼琴比賽也已成為全球著名的音樂比賽。許多威斯巴登人對“威斯巴登女婿”郎朗已久仰大名,甚至比作為當地人的吉娜·愛麗絲還更熟悉。他們希望郎朗夫婦能早日在當地同臺演出。▲

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