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    大山變暖、濫采蟲草生計難維持

    2019-07-04 06:17:26 環球時報

    英國路透社7月3日報道,原題:隨著中國的大山逐漸變暖,人們越來越難找到能“包治百病”的冬蟲夏草,從而進一步推高價格對來自中國偏遠西部的農民馬駿驍(音)來說,爬上陡峭山坡尋找一種小真菌對家庭生計很重要。每年春天,他都從甘肅長途跋涉到鄰省青海,在一片無名山峰上采挖蟲草。在那里,他與一家當地企業雇用的80來人共同尋找這種據說具有多種療效的珍貴藥材。

    近年來,青海當地一些蟲草企業一直在支付巨資以在采收季“封鎖”整座大山。但即便在作為中國最大蟲草產區的青海,蟲草產量也逐漸減少。過去兩年來,隨著蟲草日益罕見,馬在采收季的收入已腰斬至七八千元。

    原因之一是,更高的氣溫、更短的雪季和逐漸后退的冰川導致當地大山變暖,使那里的土壤溫度經常超過最適宜蟲草生長的約5℃。過去14年來一直在青海挖掘蟲草的馬說:“冰川正消失,蟲草亦是如此。”

    當地氣溫正以全球平均變暖的3倍速度上升。與此同時,隨著正在興起的中國中產階層尋求治療各種疾病,過去10年來對極其昂貴的蟲草的需求急劇上升。一股對基于植物的“超級食品”趨之若鶩的全球風潮也令許多中國人更對蟲草興趣盎然。

    在西藏、青海高海拔草地發現的蟲草已成為當地社區重要的收入來源之一,吸引牧民和農民蜂擁而至。專家表示,盡管當地官員堅持要求可持續生產,但這股熱潮已導致過度采挖。數據顯示,青海省蟲草產量從前年的4.35萬公斤降至去年的4.12萬公斤,僅相當于2010年和2011年約15萬公斤的零頭。▲

    (崔曉冬譯)

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