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    供應鏈遷出中國,需解決七個問題

    2019-07-04 06:17:17 環球時報

    美國《福布斯》7月2日文章,原題:把供應鏈遷出中國,制造商需解決7個問題為應對貿易戰關稅,很多企業正苦惱地審視把供應鏈遷出中國的代價,其中就有消費電子產品公司。考慮此舉的大部分企業都在琢磨把組裝的最后階段遷出中國。這是個艱巨任務,(至少)需解決7個問題。

    一、搬遷開發還是量產?每種產品周期都包括開發和量產兩個階段,且需要不同技能。乍看,當有經驗團隊在中國完成開發后,僅搬走幾條生產線挺容易。但這任務很艱巨,不但兩地都需要完備團隊,還需要可靠的“知識轉移”。

    二、喪失與既有工廠伙伴的“部落知識”。這些合作伙伴年復一年積累的知識能通過核心成員傳授給團隊內的其他員工。而即便把設備都轉移到其他地方,也得與一支不同的團隊合作。

    三、已有的中國團隊怎么辦?許多企業在華擁有各種團隊。盡管其中很多人會被繼續留下以支持上游供應鏈,但一些人會因組裝線外遷失去崗位,企業要解聘這些極具技能的(中國)員工嗎?

    四、需更換新語言技能。同時精通中文和工程技術的人才,是頂級消費電子品牌追逐的對象。若把組裝線搬離中國,就需要新的語言技能。盡管大多數制造商提供雙語團隊以滿足英語顧客,但就解決開發和生產中不可避免的問題而言,沒什么比精通當地語言更有效。

    五、在新地方要招收大量操作工。一條標準生產線長110米,需要180名操作工人。智能手機等復雜產品的生產線需要二三百人,高產量產品需要數十條生產線。在此前從未有過此類需求的遙遠之地迅速招到這么多工人,絕非易事。

    六、更長的供應鏈意味著更低靈活性和更高成本。打造供應鏈的最重要原則之一就是盡可能短。將其中某個步驟遷出中國,至少會令總供應鏈長度增加兩周并導致運輸成本上漲。兩周看似微不足道,但對日產量高達10萬的產品來說,這意味著140萬件商品被延遲上市。

    七、高額資本設備成本及重建“數字管道”。工廠并不僅限于組裝線及操作工,還需要各種檢查裝備、專業測試設施及其他多年累積的可靠設備。此外,即便把生產簡單產品的工廠遷至別處,也需重做數據系統相連的所有整合工作。

    鑒于上述挑戰,我們極有可能看到此類高調搬遷的公司發布產品會推遲。▲

    (作者安娜·舍德里特斯基,王會聰譯)

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