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    重慶萬州種植玫瑰香橙的生態適宜性調查分析

    2019-07-03 03:13:07 果農之友2019年5期

    汪小偉 程蘭 何才智 孫海均 何錦輝 黃仁軍 焦雁翔 馮小華 陳泉

    萬州位于三峽庫區腹心,長江橫貫全境,海拔在175~1 700米,以紫色土為主,屬典型的暖濕亞熱帶季風氣候區。萬州具有4 000年的柑橘種植歷史,柑橘是庫區農民(移民)的致富樹,為萬州經濟發展和社會穩定做出了巨大貢獻。通過多年種植和研究發現,玫瑰香橙生產對氣象條件的要求非常嚴格,其果實品質特別是花青素的形成與氣象條件關系十分密切。

    多項研究表明,溫度是影響花青素形成最重要的環境因素,溫度通過影響花色苷合成途徑中關鍵酶的活性以及調節光合、呼吸速率,影響碳水化合物的積累來調節花色苷的合成,而且要在較低的溫度下或經一定的高、低溫循環才會使花青素的積累達到最佳效果,特別是日最低氣溫下降到6 ℃時玫瑰香橙中花色苷的合成開始達到最快速度。高溫會使植物花青素合成減少和分解增加,甚至表現出褪色或較難著色。低溫可誘導PAL、CHS、CHI等花青素生物合成相關基因的表達,使花青素含量增加;而高溫會造成基因的表達量下調,降低花青素的積累。溫度還會影響花青素的穩定性,溫度越高花青素的降解速率越快,高溫可使酶活性降低甚至失活,合成速率減慢。

    光可以調節花青素合成途徑中關鍵基因的表達,不同光照強度可通過影響花青素合成相關基因的表達來調控植物體內花青素的積累量。

    海拔高度對柑橘各品質指標的影響差異明顯,總酸、總糖、固酸比和糖酸比受海拔高度的影響較大,而可溶性固形物和維生素C與海拔高度及溫度并無明顯相關。甜橙隨海拔升高、溫度降低,果實品質下降。吳黎明等研究發現庫區倫晚臍橙高海拔處(520米)果實品質顯著低于中、低海拔處(380~220米),其果實可溶性固形物含量、固/酸比值、含水量、果汁率等均較低,果面著色較差,隨采收期的延長,果實水分含量逐漸降低以致枯水,中、低海拔僅有少量輕微枯水果實。

    為了重振萬州柑橘產業,萬州確立了玫瑰香橙產業發展思路和優先發展目標。但是,玫瑰香橙是否適應萬州地理氣候特點,如何根據品種和地理條件科學布局玫瑰香橙(圖1),是迫切需要解決的問題。為此,對萬州柑橘產區不同海拔果園,進行了一月份氣溫及春季氣溫和降雨量等對玫瑰香橙品質影響的調研。

    1 不同柑橘產區1月氣溫和積溫對玫瑰香橙品質形成的分析

    玫瑰香橙的成色因子是花青素,筆者分析了全國主要柑橘產區1月的平均低溫、平均高溫和≥10 ℃ 的年有效積溫,結果顯示:

    萬州總體上屬亞熱帶季風性濕潤氣候,具有較高的冬季氣溫,并且越冬季節的低溫穩定在6 ℃左右,有利于果實花青素的積累和玫瑰色的形成。國內柑橘主產地區中,廣東最冷月(1月)平均最低氣溫在10 ℃左右、平均最高氣溫在18 ℃左右。廣西最冷月(1月)平均最低氣溫在10 ℃左右、平均最高氣溫在17 ℃左右(表1)。這兩個地方均因冬季低溫不夠,花青素無法形成,使玫瑰香橙果實著色不好。

    根據多年的種植經驗,影響塔羅科血橙產量和品質的關鍵氣候條件是≥10 ℃ 的年有效積溫值,≥10 ℃ 的年有效積溫值是十分重要的果樹熱量指標,塔羅科血橙生長要求≥10 ℃ 的年有效積溫在5 000~6 000 ℃。萬州≥10 ℃的年有效積溫為5 904.5 ℃,均大于主要血橙產區資中的5 600 ℃和富順的5 791.9 ℃。且萬州海拔500米以下玫瑰香橙產區年平均日照時數達到1 300小時以上,在果實生長后期(11月至翌年2月)平均日照時數達到150小時,有利果實中花青素生成,形成了淡淡的玫瑰紅顏色和玫瑰味道。

    2 不同柑橘產區1月低溫(霜凍天)對玫瑰香橙生長及品質影響的調查分析

    根據氣象部門的紀錄,1998—2004年,萬州1月份<4 ℃的天數平均每年只有6.8天,且霜凍天極少,適宜種植2—4月成熟的玫瑰香橙(表2)。而四川盆地其他甜橙產區濕度較高,年日照時數均小于1 000小時(相關氣象資料顯示),加之冬季過低的氣溫(表2),其氣候條件既不利果實安全越冬,也不利于果實品質發育,例如四川資中和富順等地霜凍天較多,只能在低溫霜凍來臨前的12月采收貯藏,難以保障果實完熟和優良品質形成;廣西、廣東等柑橘產區熱量較高,雖然果實和樹體能夠安全越冬,但夏季氣溫過高,果面較為粗糙,冬季溫度較高使得花青素無法形成,難以形成果面和果肉的玫瑰色,也難以形成玫瑰香味,不能表現出玫瑰香橙的顏色和香味特征;湖南、湖北和贛南地區冬有霜凍,植株和果實無法越冬。而在萬州種植玫瑰香橙既能保證花青素的形成,又能保證果實安全越冬,達到充分成熟,因而品質最優。

    2.1 萬州春季氣溫調查分析

    數據表明(表3),萬州春季2—4月的氣溫回升緩慢,到4月份溫度基本維持在25 ℃左右,有利于延長玫瑰香橙果實的自然掛樹時間,果實內質不會因為春季氣溫的快速回升,營養倒流而下降。

    2.2 萬州春季降雨量調查分析

    萬州春季降雨少,調查1999—2004年氣象資料表明,2月的平均降雨總量16.9毫米,3月的平均降雨總量33.2毫米,4月的平均降雨總量14.5毫米。1999—2004年2—4月的雨日,平均只占總天數的1/3,玫瑰香橙果實成熟期少雨適宜糖分積累控水,品質得以提升(表4)。同時,有利于市民在春季休閑采摘,提高產品的附加值。

    2.3 不同海拔種植的玫瑰香橙果實品質分析

    通過對不同海拔玫瑰香橙成熟果實進行外觀、可溶性固形物含量、維生素C含量等進行測定調查表明:在海拔501米,590米和320米種植時,玫瑰香橙品質相關指標中,維生素C含量,單果質量等指標沒有顯著差異,而差異主要表現在可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸含量、固酸比以及果實著色等方面。海拔達590米和501米時,玫瑰香橙可溶性固形物含量較低,平均10.77%(質量分數,后同),可滴定酸含量平均8.5克/升,固酸比平均為12.67。而海拔320米種植的玫瑰香橙,可溶性固形物含量平均14.60%,可滴定酸含量平均6.9克/升,固酸比平均為21.39。從外觀和風味來看,玫瑰香橙果實在海拔590米和500米處種植的果實基本沒有著玫瑰色,果肉也僅僅有少量玫瑰色,食之口味不夠飽滿,缺乏風味和回味。而在海拔320米種植的玫瑰香橙果實,果皮和果肉著鮮艷玫瑰色,甚至深紫紅色,食之口味飽滿,風味濃厚,化渣性好。調查結果表明:在四川萬州區種植玫瑰香橙應選海拔320米左右地塊建園,利用該地光照時間長,冬季溫暖無凍害,春季少雨,升溫較慢的優良氣候,提升玫瑰香橙果實品質,生產外觀美,品質優異、晚熟錯季的柑橘產品。

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