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    運城冬棗生產用上了物聯網

    2019-07-03 03:13:07 果農之友2019年5期

    鄭科

    物聯網是新一代信息技術的重要組成部分,也是信息化時代的重要發展階段。就是這樣一種高大上的技術,讓山西中農樂農業科技公司用在了永濟卿頭現代農業示范園區的冬棗大棚里,真正實現了冬棗種植自動化管理。通過建設智慧農業對光(圖1、圖2)、溫、水、氣、肥(圖3)等進行精準調節,讓冬棗種植在資源消耗大幅降低的同時實現了產量的大幅增長,展現了農業現代化的驚人潛力,探索出一條傳統農業邁向高產、高效、優質的現代化農業轉型之路。

    在卿頭中農樂冬棗現代農業示范園區這片土地上,一排排約6米高的白色智慧農業大棚很是醒目。走進大棚,映入眼簾的是,一行行整齊蔥蘢的冬棗樹上綻放著一朵朵棗花,淡淡的花香沁人心脾。

    園區生產負責人柴國榮介紹,這些大棚都安裝了物聯網,所有的溫控都是電子的,都上傳到電腦、手機上。另外大棚增設了調溫設施,為了讓冬棗提前上市,可降低溫度讓棗樹提前進入休眠期,這樣冬棗開花結果的時間就提前了。冬棗上市早,價格肯定就高。

    能實現精準控制棚內溫度和濕度,靠的就是物聯網技術。

    “溫室大棚的智能監控系統,可以自動進行溫度濕度的調節(圖4),節省了人工。電腦設上限值以后,自動打開放風口、調控溫濕度。再一個就是監測土壤的含水量,一旦含水量低于限值,電腦會自動提示打開供水系統,進行滴灌”。柴國榮告訴筆者。

    在大棚電腦控制室里,可以看到屏幕上實時顯示著棚內的各項環境數據,包括光照、溫度、濕度等。這些數據由分布在棚內的幾十個傳感節點采集傳輸。自動控制灌溉系統、簾幕系統會根據數據變化,對比預設的植物最佳生長參數,對大棚內的溫、光、水等進行調節。比如經過調節,棚內的溫度會始終保持在20~26 ℃。

    “智慧農業大棚擺脫了農業生產對自然環境的依賴,是工業化思維下的農業新項目。”中農樂農業科技有限公司董事長楊良杰說,通過智能化管理系統,實時收集棚內光、溫、水、氣、肥等數據,對作物生長全過程進行智能感知、智能分析、智能決策,實現精準化種植、科學化管理、可視化運營,“讓農作物的生長達到最佳狀態”;同時,智能種植還大大減輕了管護的勞動強度。

    為了保證冬棗品質,園區利用中農樂農業科技有限公司與運城果業發展中心共同打造了“運城智慧果業平臺”核心組成部分——運城果業APP上的追溯管理體系,嚴格按照冬棗生產管理規程,從棗樹發芽到冬棗上市,整個生產過程中的施肥、噴藥、采摘、檢測、分級、包裝、入庫等各個管理環節,嚴格監控,詳細記錄,運用手機經運城果品安全溯源平臺,將生產的每個環節及監管數據逐一上傳記錄,最終生成專屬二維碼,形成消費者與生產者能清晰互動的溯源體系。

    “我們生產的冬棗不僅糖分高,品相好,而且有自己的身份證、二維碼,是可溯源的產品,網上每千克的售價要比其他冬棗高出20元左右。”柴國榮介紹說。

    “冬棗品質的形成不僅僅在種的環節,從采收到消費者手中的保鮮環節也非常重要。”楊良杰說,在園區,冬棗摘下來 馬上進行智能包裝,隨即銷往全國各地,或者迅速放入氣調庫,保證其穩定的新鮮度和口感。目前園區的氣調庫可以貯存10噸冬棗,這樣可以延長兩個月銷售期實現錯峰銷售,在保證冬棗品質的前提下,有效提升農業大棚的經濟效益。“目前,北京的客戶已經預訂了一部分冬棗。”

    記者采訪得知,為助力鄉村振興戰略實施,園區目前還建設了冬棗文化長廊、觀景臺等設施,打造智能化、集約化、現代化的精品農業生產、觀光、采摘示范園,帶動當地農業向現代化邁進,促進三產深度融合。

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