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    優質果品生產與優質有機肥的應用

    2019-07-03 03:13:07 果農之友2019年5期

     喬憲生 司鵬 于會麗 徐國益

    有機肥料的使用,在我國有幾千年的歷史,我國從古代的農業生產中就總結出了有機肥的施用方法。近幾十年由于化肥工業的興起,農民開始使用化肥,由于化肥的速效性、高效性、方便性使得人們逐漸以使用化肥為主,化肥在提高農作物產量的同時,也帶來了巨大的環境問題,如:面源污染、水體富營養化、能源消耗過大、土壤板結、果品品質下降等,我們不得不再次考慮以有機肥代替部分化肥。

    任何含有較高有機物質的物料施用到田間均對農田土壤起到改良作用,同時可供給作物養分促進作物生長。有機肥的種類很多,有機質含量差別很大。同樣是有機肥,有的要每畝成噸成噸的施,有的施用幾百千克即可。在勞動力成本昂貴的今天,省工省時省力的有機肥備受用戶青睞。當下,消費者追求優質的果品,而果農也在追求優質的有機肥。

    根據國家農業農村部發布的《開展水果蔬菜茶葉有機肥替代化肥行動方案》提出的要在果菜茶領域率先實現有機肥替代化肥的要求,這里有必要對有機肥在果園的施用做一次回顧性總結,并進行粗略的分類。

    1 有機肥的分類

    1.1 初級有機肥

    主要是土雜肥,如,各種垃圾、炕土、污泥、掃房灰等,目前已很少施用。他們的有機質含量偏低,一般在5%~10%。施用工作量大,養分含量很低,對于土壤的改良效果有限。

    1.2 傳統有機肥

    主要是畜禽糞便,如,牛糞、豬糞、羊糞、雞糞等,目前仍是許多果園的主要肥源。有機質含量一般在15%~30%,其中羊糞可達28%。缺點是施用工作量大,每畝地一般需要用3~5噸,盛果期高產大樹需要8~10噸,在勞動力比較昂貴的今天,施肥成本較高。

    1.3 商品有機肥

    按照國家和行業頒布的標準,通過一定技術手段,添加一定物料,發酵烘干而成,目前我國農業行業標準NY 525—2012規定,商品有機肥的有機質含量不得低于45%,而且氮磷鉀含量不得低于6%。這樣,田間施用量就可以降低到每畝500~1 000千克,大大節約了勞動力。

    1.4 生物有機肥

    大多參照商品有機肥的有機質含量標準,在生物發酵的基礎上,添加有利于土壤改良、殘根殘枝殘葉分解利用的生物菌,如,枯草芽孢桿菌、解淀粉細菌、解磷解鉀菌、根瘤菌、酵母菌等,不但符合商品有機肥的標準,而且添加的生物菌劑可有效活化利用土壤中固有的養分。采用微生物肥料與化肥配合施用,既能保持增產,又可減少化肥使用量,降低成本,同時還能改善土壤及果實品質,減少污染。

    1.5 優質有機肥

    一般指有機質含量在60%以上,且有機質中蛋白質(氨基酸等小分子物質)達到20%以上的生物有機肥。這類有機肥既有一般有機肥改良活化土壤的效果,又具有化肥速效性的特點,其所含大量的生物菌還可對果樹的根部病害起到抑制作用,如:可以大大緩解果樹的重茬連作等。生產優質有機肥的關鍵是原料選擇,優質的原料才能生產優質的產品。例如,采用油渣、豆餅水解發酵的優質有機肥;利用飼養蚯蚓加糖密閉發酵后生產的優質有機肥;利用餐廚垃圾、剩飯剩菜作為原料生產的優質有機肥;利用生產食用菌后產生的大量菌棒作為原料生產的優質有機肥等。

    2 優質有機肥舉例

    “鄭果”牌高蛋白全營養生物菌肥(圖1)及油渣生物有機肥(圖2)采用的原料是棉籽、大豆、花生、芝麻、菜籽榨取油后的油渣及油餅豆粕,經生物酶化技術對油渣降解,經高溫發酵后加入多種菌種(如:枯草芽孢桿菌、蠟質芽孢桿菌、菌根真菌、固氮菌、鏈霉菌等),每克有效活菌數在2億/克以上,有的在5億/克以上,有機質含量高于50%,含有豐富的微量元素,各種菌種能形成一個團粒結構,防止其他微生物的侵害,改善土壤理化性狀。

    主要技術指標:有效活菌數≥2.0億/克 有機質≥46% 蛋白質≥30%? 總養分(氮+五氧化二磷+氧化鉀+氧化鈣+氧化鎂)≥15%,特別添加抗病性有益生物菌和鐵、錳、硼、鋅等微量元素。

    油渣生物有機肥的氮磷鉀含量大于等于6%,有機質大于等于46%(表1),以氨基酸為代表的蛋白質以及黃腐酸、水溶性糖在30%以上,水溶性物質總量是普通有機肥的5~10倍。由于小分子有機物質含量相對較高,施入到田間后可較快被果樹吸收利用,且施用量相對較小,每畝一次施用150~200千克即可見到明顯效果。既可作為基肥施用,也可作為生長季追肥施用。配方中添加的煙末可對地下害蟲起到有效的驅避作用。

    3 優質果品的生產得益于優質有機肥的應用

    施用油渣生物有機肥的地塊,蟲害少,樹勢生長有力,樹葉綠肥而厚大,果實光亮個大,色澤好看,口感好,和施其他有機肥相比糖度增加2度左右。土壤理化性狀有所改善,果樹根系發達,植株健壯,產品品質好,著色好,口感也好,具有較好賣相。

    新鄭市龍湖鎮大司村的司全貴種了50畝大櫻桃,他施用油渣有機肥后,櫻桃比以前口感好,而且上市早,回頭客多,而且不少人組團來園里采摘,2017年相鄰的果園售價30~34元/千克,他園的櫻桃售價40元/千克,客戶都說雖貴點但好吃,油渣有機肥給他帶來了很好的效益。他準備今后進一步加大施用量,提高產品品質,吸引更多客戶來園采摘。

    鄭州市齊禮閆鄉閆峒村葡萄種植戶王子學,連續使用油渣有機肥7~8年,他反映使用油渣生物有機肥后葡萄品質上去了,口感特別好,許多推銷員讓他試用別的有機肥,他說“我不換,用油渣生物肥,葡萄品質上去了,口感好,許多客戶都是提前來田間定貨,客戶相信,而且價格也高,所以不能貪圖一時的便宜失去客戶”。他舉例說,2018年他的葡萄賣完了,他去別的果園拿來葡萄賣給客戶,客戶品嘗后說:“這不是你的葡萄,你的葡萄不是這味道”。客戶的反應讓他認準了優質的油渣生物有機肥。

    新鄉平原新區果樹種植戶楊中峰反映,2018年清明的一場大雪,造成各地農作物大面積受凍,損失慘重,有的絕收。但只要連續使用油渣有機肥料的果農,受凍不是很嚴重。楊中峰他們合作社施用油渣有機肥6~7年了,在這次災害中,果樹凍傷很少,基本完好,他很高興,說多虧油渣有機肥油性大,這也跟人穿上大棉襖一樣,不會凍著。

    “吃凱富葡萄,口留余香”。獲嘉縣凱富葡萄家庭農場長期施用“鄭果”高蛋白全元生物菌肥,不僅葡萄甜度大,而且葡萄香味濃郁(圖3)。使用高蛋白全元生物有機肥省工省時省力,每畝地每次用量150~200千克,與過去使用羊糞相比,節省用工,經濟又實用。

    鄭州市北三環董村田園圈農資公司劉經理經營農資多年,用戶來店買肥料就認準“油渣肥”這幾個字。這說明高蛋白全元生物菌肥和油渣生物有機肥性價比較高。

    滎陽市廣武農資經銷商劉廣春代理“鄭果”油渣有機肥已經3年了,據劉經理介紹油渣有機肥在當地韭菜、白菜、果樹(圖4)上都有很好的效果,油渣有機肥克服了傳統有機肥分解慢的特點,在韭菜上施用不僅見效快,而且因為原料中添加了黃煙末,還有很好的驅除地下害蟲的效果。在反季節白菜上使用土壤透氣性好,土傳病害大大降低。因為油渣有機肥有著不錯的效果,他每年的銷量都在100噸以上,而且還在逐步攀升。

    ?
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