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    綠色智能化快遞包裝設計研究

    2019-07-03 02:21:47 商場現代化2019年8期

    李晶欣 任付民 劉美茵

    摘 要:近年來,電子商務突飛猛進的發展給世界各國的經濟都注入了新鮮血液,與此同時,以網購為主的快遞包裝造成的資源浪費,生態環境破壞等問題也不斷凸顯。為響應習近平總書記在十三屆全國人大二次會議時強調的:“保持加強生態文明建設的戰略定力,探索以生態優先、綠色發展為導向的高質量發展新路子,要加大生態系統保護力度。要打好污染防治攻堅戰。”的號召,本文通過對快遞包裝的使用現狀,問題根源的分析,提出了智能化綠色快遞包裝的設計思路以及綠色發展策略,不僅使快遞包裝更加智能化、人性化而且有利于提高快遞包裝的重復使用率,減少資源浪費和生態環境破壞。

    關鍵詞:快遞包裝;問題剖析;智能化;綠色化;創意設計

    一、我國快遞包裝的現狀

    隨著“互聯網+”時代的快速發展和改革開放進程的不斷加快,我國網購產生的快遞占快遞業務總量達到60%。中國快遞業在同一城市共完成114.1億件,同比增長23.1%。不同地區的業務量共計381.9億件,同比增長27.5%。國際/香港、澳門及臺灣業務量共計11.1億件,同比增長34%。快遞業務量的不斷增加必然導致快遞包裝需求的快速增長。據國家郵政局統計數據顯示,2016年全國快遞業務量達312.8億件,67%以上使用了電子面單,共消耗編織袋約32億條、塑料袋約68億個、37億個包裝箱和3.3億卷膠帶。其中紙箱的利用率不超過20%,塑料袋和膠帶的主要成分是聚氯乙烯,它們在土壤里是很難降解的,需要花費上百年的時間。目前我國對這些快遞垃圾的處理大多采用焚燒和掩埋的方式,不僅造成了嚴重的大氣污染、土壤污染,還造成了土地資源的極大浪費,而且這些包裝材料中有部分是含有一定毒性的,對人們的身體健康更是造成了巨大的威脅。

    二、快遞包裝存在的主要問題

    1.過度包裝問題突出

    一方面,由于網購商品在運輸過程中要經過多次中轉,為了避免商品在運輸過程中受損,保證商品能夠完好無損地送到收件人手中,商家和快遞公司在快遞包裝上投入了大量的心血。一個體積幾立方厘米的物品被裝在一個是其體積數十倍的包裝箱里,包裝箱里套著禮品盒,還纏繞著層層塑料、泡沫墊等,箱子外面又纏著一圈圈膠帶。這樣緊密的包裝或許在保護商品安全方面起到了一定效果,但由此產生的快遞垃圾給生態環境帶來的危害卻不可估量。另一方面,消費者“包裝受損就給差評”,“易碎物品必須多層包裝”等的錯誤理念也是造成過度包裝的重要因素。

    2.包裝材料健康環保性能差

    目前快遞包裝材料構成復雜,其中發泡膜、膠帶、黑灰包裝袋等包裝材料是快遞垃圾產生的主要來源。泡沫薄膜、塑料包裝袋等塑料結構具有穩定性,在自然環境中難以降解,同時還含有苯、氯等有害物質,這意味著如果塑料廢物不被回收,它將成為環境中的長期污染物,并不斷積累,污染環境,不利于人類健康。快遞垃圾不僅對生態環境和人體健康產生了巨大的危害而且快遞垃圾的數量也是令人震驚。據業內統計,如果把一年使用的膠帶連起來可以繞地球400多圈。而透明膠帶的主要原料是聚氯乙烯、賽璐珞溶膠等物質如果不甚吸入體內會對人體健康產生影響,其小分子顆粒會被吸收至血液循環系統中,最終被植被在腎臟里,極不易被排出,從而誘發腎結石等病癥的幾率比正常人要高出3倍。

    3.缺少回收利用機制

    快遞包裝到達收件方的手里絕大多數都面臨著被丟棄的悲慘遭遇。包裝袋以及減震的內部填充物一般就是直接扔掉或者當作垃圾袋使用,只有紙盒、紙箱類可能會被賣到廢品回收站循環使用。但目前我國包裝材料的回收率依舊很低,僅在15%左右。

    多數快遞公司缺乏社會責任感,只是一味地通過降低成本追求較高的利潤,故并沒有建立專門的快遞包裝回收渠道。而部分消費者自身的環保意識也比較差,不愿意使用可多次使用的包裝,也很少有消費者會主動把自己的快遞包裝交給快遞小哥以期多次循環使用。政府相關部門也沒有出臺比較有效的快遞包裝回收利用機制,缺乏統一的標準等也是造成資源浪費的重要原因。

    4.信息泄露問題令人擔憂

    一件快遞從商家發貨到到達收件人手中要中轉三到五次,經過些許快遞員和中轉站快遞挑揀人的手。其中快遞包裹是不是被人打開過,產品是不是被惡搞過都無從知曉。另外,快遞包裝袋(盒)上貼著的標簽記錄著收件方的姓名、地址、手機號等私人信息。而在快遞送貨上門服務越來越普及的現代社會,消費者在享受便捷服務帶來的滿意感的同時也不禁擔心自己的手機號碼、精確的家庭住址就這樣暴露在“有心人”視野里了。

    三、快遞包裝創意設計及綠色發展策略研究

    1.快遞包裝創意設計

    創意是在共享經濟理念的指導下將包裝箱和智能鎖進行回收共享從而設計出一款新型的智能快遞包裝。唯一的驗證碼保證商品不會被取出后又被放回,而智能開鎖的設計不僅方便了拆快遞而且在很大程度上節省了膠帶的使用量。將一種以可降解的防水布為基礎材料的耐用紙箱與拉鏈縫合在一起,對箱腳進行支撐并增加保護。同時將二維碼與智能鎖相結合,收件方只有通過掃描二維碼輸入購買商品支付成功時獲得的驗證碼或直接通過智能鎖輸入驗證碼才可以將智能鎖打開,防止惡意開啟,提高快遞安全性。這種相對智能化的操作系統不僅提高了開箱速度,還極大地增強了快遞本身的安全性能,為比較貴重的奢侈品或隱私資料(產品)保駕護航。

    2.快遞包裝回收利用系統構建

    (1)消費者促進回收利用

    針對送貨上門的服務,收件人可以即取即還,即在收到快遞時及時將物品取出來,當場把快遞包裝盒返還給快遞小哥。針對快遞代收服務,收件方在取到快遞后可以直接將物品取出然后將快遞包裝盒交給快遞代收站負責人;若消費者不方便當面取出物品也可以將快遞連同包裝盒帶回家,之后再將包裝盒返還給快遞代收站。

    (2)快遞機構建立回收機制

    快遞代收站也要采取相應的措施,可以采取積分積累網上購物抵錢的方式激勵消費者配合包裝物回收的工作;還可以建立信用積分懲罰制,針對那些信用積分比較低的用戶實行全網付郵費制,即:在網上購買任何商品都不能享受包郵。

    3.政府加快出臺綠色快遞包裝政策

    政府部門應加快出臺和完善規范綠色包裝材料的政策,制定嚴格的行業準入標準,確保包裝材料的健康環保性。其次,還應當加大對快遞包裝材料合格與否的查處力度,對不符合標準的快遞包裝生產企業加大懲罰力度,嚴重者責令其停產。最后,相關部門應加大對包裝回收驛站等的支持力度,可以適當地給予政策補貼,使包裝回收驛站與快遞公司合作,實現快遞包裝的共享使用。

    四、結論及展望

    中國堅持走節約資源。保護環境的可持續發展道路,傳統包裝材料對生態環境造成了嚴重的破壞顯然已經不適合未來社會發展的需要,推行綠色智能化快遞包裝的改革勢在必行。綠色智能化快遞包裝的設計以及回收共享機制的暢想是對資源節約型、環境友好型快遞包裝的積極探索,需要政府、企業、社會三方共同努力。政府應當充分發揮領頭羊的作用出臺并完善快遞包裝材料規范政策以及回收利用機制,企業要不斷地生產、推廣智能、綠色、可降解的包裝材料,整個社會都要樹立綠色環保的意識,承擔起節約資源和保護環境的責任,為綠色智能化快遞的發展開辟一片道路,為生態環境的建設貢獻出一份力量。

    參考文獻:

    [1]國家郵政局發布2017年《中國快遞綠色包裝發展現狀及趨勢報告》[J].綠色包裝,2017(10):18.

    [2]董曉瑋,吳宣潤,楊亞萍.基于可循環智能快遞包裝的調查研究[J].設計,2018(16):114-116.

    [3]崔惠,張青.淺析我國快遞商品綠色物流包裝問題[J].中國商論,2016(19):85-86.

    [4]黃土榮.快遞綠色包裝面臨問題及對策研究[J].物流工程與管理,2016,38(05):203-204.

    [5]陳瑩燕.可持續發展理念下快遞包裝的創新設計[J].包裝工程,2014,35(24):10-12.

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