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    梨樹紡錘形幼樹全年整形修剪關鍵技術

    2019-07-03 03:13:07 果農之友2019年5期

    徐明舉 呂慧 徐興文

    最近在筆者逛果園的過程中發現各地梨樹陸續進入花期(圖1)、幼果期,各項管理到了關鍵時期。鑒于這些年開始采取紡錘形栽培增多,管理還存在一些需要落實的技術,不少地方新發展的梨樹到了開始籌劃做好全年整形修剪工作的關鍵時刻了,有些果農在做,有些果農雖然準備采取新模式,但整形修剪還是按照老模式進行,無論是新模式還是老模式,幼樹期間的整形修剪至關重要。

    梨樹幼樹整形修剪一般指3年生以前的樹,是樹冠形成的主要時期,也是從生長到開始結果的轉化時期。此期整形修剪的主要任務是根據所采用的樹形,選擇和培養主干及各級骨干枝,并在骨干枝上培養結果枝組,同時對一些枝條進行適當控制,使之及時成花結果。在梨樹紡錘形整形修剪中應采取促發長枝、開張角度、輕剪長放、疏枝、多留枝的方法。

    1 刻芽培養骨干枝并適當開張角度

    主干所發分枝角度小,生長極性強,是梨樹一些品種的生長特征之一,因而容易造成生長過旺,枝條密擠,通風透光不良,形成花芽困難,影響早期結果。主干上為促發分枝,春天要進行刻芽處理(圖2),目的是促發更多分枝。為緩和側枝的生長勢和改善冠內通風透光條件,要及早用牙簽開張角度(圖3),并對長勢過旺枝梢進行摘心處理,摘心長度在新梢長到20厘米時進行。對于2~3年生前期沒有牙簽開張的,可用支、拉、頂或里芽外蹬的方法開張角度(圖4、圖5),開張角度控制在80°~90°,開張角度與蘋果不同,現在蘋果都采取下拉開角的方式,成90°~110°,梨樹開角拉枝時要注意防止大枝劈裂。

    2 促進枝葉量增長,盡快擴大樹冠

    有些梨樹,由于成枝力低,幼樹樹冠生長緩慢,促發分枝能力弱。應運用各種修剪方法增加分枝、枝葉量。管理過程中可以應用摘葉造傷促發分枝或加噴500毫克/千克 6-BA辦法促發分枝。對幼旺樹要輕剪、緩放、多留枝。對于當年旺長的直立枝、徒長枝和直立的競爭枝,一般也不要疏除,等長到30厘米時進行摘心處理,到7月中下旬,可通過拉枝等變向技術,填補樹冠空隙。當然,過密或生長特別旺的徒長枝要及時疏除。

    3 培養結果枝組

    在主、側枝上配置大型枝組的樹形(如主干疏層形)中,大型枝組主要配置在主、側枝的中后部,中型枝組配置在中部,小型枝組配置在前部及大、中型枝組之間。僅有中型枝組的樹形(如自然圓錐形、紡錘形等),則中型枝組配置在小主枝或大型枝組的中后部。小型枝組的培養多采用短枝連年緩放自然形成的方法。在骨干枝的背上,幼年期只留小型枝組,枝軸長度控制在25厘米以下。不能留大型和中型枝組,如果背上枝組轉旺時,要在夏剪或冬剪時,間疏強枝,留平斜弱枝。無論培養哪種結果枝組,都要采取單軸延伸(圖6),枝組上要及時疏除競爭枝、交叉枝、重疊枝。

    4 促進開花早結果

    在保證骨干枝順利生長的同時,通過輕剪長放、拉枝和環割等方法,促進一部分枝條形成花芽和開花結果。樹冠內的中庸枝、弱枝,一般均長放,促其成花,及早結果。如果冠內空間較大,可以在該枝條上部深度刻傷,促使其轉化成長枝。對內膛有空間而不影響主側枝生長的輔養枝,可通過環割、緩放等措施,促使其提早結果(圖7)。

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