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    蘋果壓條繁育苗木技術

    2019-07-03 03:13:07 果農之友2019年5期

    趙林 韓秀清

    無病毒自根苗繁育是現代果業持續健康發展的重要保障,是目前提高苗木質量的重要途徑和方法,也是未來苗木發展的方向。無毒自根栽培同常規栽培相比具有諸多優越性:(1)生長健壯,抽枝力強;(2)樹勢強,建園后園貌整齊、早成形、早豐產;(3)果實大,結果多,果實光潔度好;(4)果實的內在品質提高;(5)根系發達、抗逆性強。

    無病毒自根苗的繁育方法主要有組織培養法、壓條法、扦插法等方式。壓條法是自根苗繁育的重要方法之一,其意義與無性生殖的意義相同:繁殖速度快,產生的新個體能完全保留母體的優良性狀。壓條法是把母樹枝條壓入土中,待枝條長出新根后與母樹切斷而成為新的植株,這種方法操作簡單,生長快速,成苗時間短。

    1 壓條自根苗繁育常用的方法

    1.1 水平壓條

    用1年生成熟枝條壓條育苗,在第一年冬剪時,留下母株基部附近的萌蘗枝,第二年春萌芽前進行壓條,按適當間隔刻傷枝條并水平固定于溝中,除去枝條上向下生長的芽,填土。待生根萌芽后在節間處逐一切斷,每株苗附有一段母體。

    1.2 垂直壓條

    將母株近地1~2年生枝條向四方彎曲,于下方刻傷后壓入坑中,用鉤固定,培土壓實,枝梢垂直向上露出地面并插縛一支持物。

    2 壓條苗繁育

    2.1 壓條繁育要求

    2.1.1 建立脫毒原種圃 利用培土壓條法培育無病毒自根苗,必須先通過組培建立一級脫毒種源圃,以備以后重復利用時所需的無毒種源。然后建立二級脫毒砧木和品種采穗圃,經過組織培養的脫毒砧木不僅可以保證矮化砧性狀穩定達到脫毒的目的,而且比普通矮化砧生根更容易,生根質量和成苗后苗木的長勢也優于普通矮化砧。

    2.1.2 建立無病毒采穗圃 壓條繁育為了保證苗木的健康和可持續性,必須建立無病毒采穗圃。

    2.1.3 無病毒砧木壓條的苗木來源 壓條苗木繁育必須以無病毒組培苗木為基礎,利用無病毒組培苗木建立無病毒砧木壓條繁育圃。

    2.2 壓條圃的建立

    2.2.1 平整土地 首先選擇地勢平坦、土壤肥沃、灌溉便利、最好有噴灌或滴灌等節水灌溉設施的土地,土地至少3年以上未育過果樹和林業苗木,且遠離果園和其他育苗地。

    整地前深翻土壤,施足底肥,畝施腐熟有機肥5~6立方米,二銨15~25千克。土壤殺菌殺蟲,畝施呋喃丹、甲基托布津各1~2千克。

    2.2.2 壓條苗母株培育 (1)栽植。不同的砧木生根部位不同,栽植深度也不同,M7以萌蘗根為主,可以栽淺一些,M26和M9-T337萌蘗根較少,主要以氣孔生根為主,適當栽深一些。一般情況下栽植前按行距1.2~2米挖栽植溝并做壟,溝深、寬30~40厘米,開溝時底土與表土分開,表土放入溝內栽植苗木,底土留一邊起壟,壟高30厘米,作培土用。無毒矮化砧木苗按25~30厘米,傾斜45°~60°栽植于定植溝內,并及時灌水。開溝的主要目的是防止連年培土分株使母根上移,使母株老化,影響萌蘗生長,同時防止病毒的感染。

    (2)培土壓條。①垂直壓條。栽植后第一年主要是加強管理,促進砧木苗生長。第二年春萌芽前在母株上留15厘米左右短截,促發萌蘗,萌蘗苗高25厘米左右時進行第一次培土(圖1、圖2),疏除過密的細弱萌蘗,培土高度10厘米左右,第一次培土盡量保持萌蘗原有的生長狀態,保證萌蘗生長高度,萌蘗新梢高40~60厘米時進行第二次培土,培土時先把萌蘗四周用土培實,然后在萌蘗中央培土,把萌蘗壓向兩側,傾斜45°~60°,培土使原來的溝變成壟,壟高50厘米左右。培土最遲應在6月底完成,若第一次培土時萌蘗的高度低時,可在6月底一次培土。

    ②水平壓條。春季移栽母株(1年生砧木苗),行距1.5米,株距30~50厘米,傾斜45°栽植。一年后將枝條壓入土中5厘米左右的淺溝中固定。待新梢長至15~20厘米時第一次培土,25~30厘米時第二次培土。培土部位去除葉片,枝條基部未壓入土內的芽處于頂端優勢的地位,及時抹除強旺萌蘗枝,如果培土后發現土壤干旱,應在兩側開溝灌水,平時可以進行噴灌,保持濕度,秋季落葉后即可進行分株。

    2.3 田間管理

    除配制基質培土生根壯苗外,為了保證培土萌蘗有足夠的生長高度,便于嫁接,培土后要加強水肥管理。5—7月追施化肥1~2次(圖3),5月底前以尿素為主,7月以后以磷、鉀肥為主,培土后根部不便追肥,也可葉面噴施0.2%~0.5%(質量分數,后同)尿素和磷酸二氫鉀2~3次(圖4)。

    充分利用噴灌或滴灌等節水灌溉設施補足水分,保證培土基質濕潤,促進生根,澆水一般不用大水,大水澆后易造成水分過多,影響土壤通氣,從而影響生根,且澆后中耕不及時易造成土壤板結。加強病蟲害防治,清除雜草。冬季注意培土、灌水越冬。

    2.4 繁殖圃更新

    為了使矮化砧的遺傳性狀穩定、保證砧木脫毒效果、提高培土壓條成苗的效率和質量,避免出現“小老苗”和病毒的重復感染,繁殖圃8~10年應更新一次,建立新的繁殖圃。

    2.5 移栽

    2.5.1 分株 秋季落葉后或春季萌芽前,扒開土壟進行分株(采收苗木),并選取靠近母株1~2個枝干短截留樁,樁保留5~7厘米(3~5個芽),留作下年培土壓條用,剪除未生根的枝條,分株后及時覆土防寒越冬,并施足量底肥。

    2.5.2 分級 為保證移栽成活率,栽前要嚴格檢查苗木和分級,根系有3條以上較粗側根(直徑1毫米以上)的可直接移栽;3條以下的最好假植移栽,保證移栽后苗木的長勢整齊一致,以節約土地;未生根的、有大的機械傷和病蟲害的不可以移栽;移栽萌蘗的嫁接口粗度應在0.6厘米以上;接芽未成活的及時補接。

    2.5.3 整地、移栽 深翻土壤,每畝施5~6立方米完全腐熟的農家肥和適量化肥,對土壤進行殺菌消毒處理防治地下害蟲和病害。整完地后做畦,畦寬3米,栽植密度一般采用寬窄行,寬行60厘米,窄行40厘米,株距15~20厘米,每畦可栽6行苗木,栽植時接芽露出地面10厘米左右。

    2.5.4 栽后管理 (1)水肥管理。栽后及時灌水,以后根據天氣情況和土壤濕度及時補足水分。初期不施肥料,5月初苗高20~30厘米時,葉面噴施0.2%~0.5%尿素,5月底6月初以追尿素為主,7—8月以追施磷鉀肥為主。

    (2)剪砧、解膜。移栽后7~10天在接芽上方留1厘米剪除剩余砧段,解除薄膜,剪口涂抹愈合劑。

    (3)抹芽、打杈。5月中上旬及時抹除接芽以外萌蘗,6月以后及時剪除苗木上斜生枝,保證苗木生長。

    (4)中耕除草。及時中耕除草,保證土壤疏松,減少雜草危害。

    (5)病害蟲防治。栽后萌芽前噴施2~3波美度石硫合劑1次,生長季及時防治病蟲害,尤其是蚜蟲、葉蟬等刺吸式口器害蟲,防止病毒的傳播。

    ?
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